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Table 2 Summary of in vivo ingestion-based mammalian studies prioritized for Tier 2 expert evaluation

From: Development and application of a health-based framework for informing regulatory action in relation to exposure of microplastic particles in California drinking water

Study and DOI Particle type and shape Particle length (μm) Exposure Concentrations (mg/kg bw/day) Exposure Method and Matrix Tissues Investigated Number and type of endpoints reporteda
Male reproduction
 Hou et al. [47]
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124028
Polystyrene Spheres 5 0.017, 0.17, 1.73b Drinking water
Deionized water
Testis
whole body (weight)
Sperm
Epididymis
1 Apoptosis
4 Reproductive
8 Inflammatory
1 Gene stress
 Amereh et al. [1]
10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114158
Polystyrene Spheres 0.025 and 0.05 1, 3, 6 and 20 Gavage
Distilled water
Blood serum
Sperm
Testis
16 Reproductive
 Li et al. [64]
10.1007/s11356-021–13,911-9
Polystyrene Spheres 0.5 0.083, 0.83, 8.3b Drinking water
Deionized water
Sperm
Testis
3 Apoptosis
8 Reproductive
1 Inflammatory
4 Oxidative stress
1 Gene stress
 Xie et al. [124]
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.110133
Polystyrene Spheres 5 0.43, 4.25, 43.7b Drinking water
Deionized water
Whole body
Testis
Sperm
Blood serum
1 Apoptosis
4 Reproductive
3 Inflammatory
2 Energy metabolism
3 Oxidative stress
1 Gene stress
1 Body condition
Female reproduction
 An et al. [3]
10.1016/j.tox.2020.152665
Polystyrene Spheres 0.5 0.083, 0.83, 8.3 Drinking water
Deionized water
Blood serum
Ovaries
4 Apoptosis
9 Reproductive
5 Oxidative stress
 Hou et al. [48]
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112012
Polystyrene Spheres 0.5 0.015, 0.15, 1.5 Drinking water
Deionized water
Blood serum
Ovaries
2 Apoptosis
2 Reproductive
9 Inflammatory
4 Oxidative stress
 Park et al. [85]e
10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.008
Polyethylene
Fragments
16.9 3.75, 15, 60 Gavage
drinking water
Blood
Lung
Kidney
Spleen
Testis
Stomach
Seminal vesicles
Ovaries
Heart
Thymus
Epididymis
Duodenum
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Uterus
Brain
4 Organ level
12 Blood biomarkers
1 Body condition
4 Reproductive
17 Immune
Heart
 Wei et al. [116]
10.1002/tox.23095
Polystyrene Spheres 0.5 0.087, 0.865, 8.56c Drinking water
Deionized water
Spleen
Heart
Blood serum
1 Apoptosis
3 Heart tissue
9 Inflammatory
4 Oxidative stress
 Li et al. [65]
10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115025
Polystyrene Spheres 0.5 0.087, 0.865, 8.56c Drinking water
Deionized water
Heart
Blood Serum
4 Apoptosis
10 Heart tissue
4 Oxidative stress
Liver
 Deng et al. [29]
10.1038/srep46687
Polystyrene Spheres 5 and 20 0.272, 2.613, 13.56 Gavage
Milli-Q water
Whole body
Liver
2 Liver tissue
1 Nervous system
1 Body condition
2 Energy metabolism
2 Lipid metabolism
3 Oxidative stress
Thyroid
 Amereh et al. [2]
10.1039/c9tx00147f
Polystyrene Spheres 0.025 and 0.050 1,3,6,10 c Gavage
distilled water
Blood serum 5 Thyroid
3 Lipid metabolism
2 Gene stress
Gut Microbiome
 Li et al. [62]
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125492
Polyethylene Spheres 10 to 150 6, 60, 600 μg ·d−1 d Food
Basal feed
Blood serum
Colon
Duodenum
Spleen
Feces
4 Intestinal
6 Immune
4 Inflammatory
14 Microbiome
  1. aNumbers represent individual endpoints tested grouped by general effect category, which may include varying levels of biological organization from sub-cellular responses (e.g., changes in gene expression) to organismal level impacts (e.g., changes in body weight), additional details reported in Table S5
  2. bBody-weight normalized exposure concentration estimated based on reported water intake rate, reported average reported body weight, and reported exposure concentration in drinking water fed to rodent in study
  3. cEstimated exposure concentration based on reported concentration in drinking water and average reported body weight. Authors did not report drinking water intake rate of rodents, so an average value for this strain and life stage of rodent was used (1.7 × 10–7 L ·kg−1·d−1; Hou et al. [47])
  4. dBody weight was not reported by authors, so body-weight normalized exposure concentrations could not be determined
  5. emulti-generational effects, both male and female mice included in the study, with emphasis on effects related to female reproduction